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Hidden in the risk segment of aesthetic and beauty: Professor at the Minas Pontifical Catholic University. The risk of microbial transmission potentially increases when manicurists and pedicurists are unaware of or do not use biosecurity procedures. The oven was the most widely used method epluquerias sterilizing, insufficient for cleaning and decontamination of material.
The intervening factor most cited for non-adherence to the measures was the lack of information. The results reinforce the need for increased assistance regarding biosecurity procedures for professionals in this sector. Beauty and aesthetic centers. Exposure to biological agents. Los resultados de este estudio refuerzan la necesidad de una asistencia para los profesionales de este segmento sobre las medidas de bioseguridad.
The beauty and aesthetics market has grown in recent decades, driven by the media, which has brought with it image and style patterns reaching all social strata and age groups.
The result has been the employment of a significant amount of manual workers in this sector, among them manicurists and pedicurists. Manicurists and pedicurists manipulate tissues of the hands and feet, especially when the practice of removing the cuticle in Brazil is considered, which in countries such as Spain, Portugal, Italy and the United States is not performed, more biosegutidad cultural reasons than due to legislation prohibiting such an act.
This practice increases the risk of exposure to biological agents, potentially present in the blood, such as the hepatitis B and C viruses and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV.
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The risk of microbial transmission becomes imminent when manicurists and pedicurists are biosgeuridad and do not adhere to biosecurity procedures, which include: Transmission may occur through a small volume of blood due to visible or invisible injuries of the professionals and clients.
Another risk is the contamination of eye structures, caused by fragments of nails, mamual can be thrown off while cutting, especially when the professional does not prevent this with the use of protective eye glasses.
Although thousands of procedures are performed in beauty and aesthetics establishments, there are few records of infections related to professionals and clients, not due to a lack of events but more a lack of notification.
The beauty and aesthetics professionals’ empirical way of working, due to a lack of preparation and knowledge about biosecurity recommendations, forms a relevant discussion on the risk of transmission of microorganisms to the professionals occupational and to biseguridad clients in this line of activity. Furthermore, concern with dee control of infections and microbial spread is no longer exclusive to the hospital environment, affecting several services linked to health, among them, those of beauty and aesthetics.
Thus, this study bioseguricad to evaluate the knowledge and adherence to biosecurity recommendations by manicurists and pedicurists that work in beauty salons. It was carried out in salons located in the town of Arcos, in the central west of Minas Gerais, km from Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and a technical school of podiatry in the city of Belo Horizonte.
The professionals were interviewed in two locations: For the selection of the salons, those with business license issued by the city of Arcos were initially sought. The city council provided a list that contained only six establishments, all of which could not be located. It was chosen to map the salons found by neighborhoods, regardless of the council license, and interviews biosegurifad conducted so that all the establishments were covered.
During the interviews the manicurists indicated other salons, which were then visited. Manicurist students of the podiatry technician course, who had taken the discipline “contamination in podiatry practice” 40 hours were also interviewed. The choice of the technical level institution was due to it being the one to have continuously offered the course in podiatry for the longest period. The professionals were verbally invited to participate, detailing the study and, after acceptance and signing the Terms of Free Prior Informed Consent, the interviews were performed.
A structured questionnaire was administered containing multiple-choice questions and open questions, divided into the following parts: I- sociodemographic characteristics; II- issues facing professional adherence to the reprocessing of equipment, disposal of single-use articles and biiseguridad of surfaces; III- knowledge of the professionals regarding the same measures discussed in part II; IV- factors that hinder the adoption of the measures referred to in part II.
The questionnaire was previously evaluated by four researchers with expertise in statistics, epidemiology, infectious diseases and infection control. Table 1 presents the topics of evaluation of the adherence and knowledge of biosecurity procedures. For the treatment of the data the descriptive statistical methods, Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, were used.
To facilitate the description and evaluation, the sample was divided into two groups called: All the respondents were female, with no male manicurists encountered. The prevalent ages in the MP group were between years Table 2 presents the sociodemographic data.
Correct answers to the questions ranged from Among the MP group, independent of the sociodemographic variables, adherence and knowledge were insufficient and inadequate. Therefore, in this group, it was not possible to calculate the association p value of the sociodemographic variables with the other aspects evaluated.
Among those who presented sufficient knowledge, When evaluating the variable length of practical work in the beauty and aesthetics sector, greater adherence and knowledge was perceived for professionals who had been working for between one and five years However, in both periods of professional experience, knowledge of biosecurity was better than adherence.
Regarding the daily workload, the highest percentage of professionals who presented poor adherence were those who worked more than eight hours per day Regarding professional manicurist training, it was verified that, to have performed a regular professional course did not result in greater adherence to biosecurity procedures, with this group presenting the highest percentage of inadequate responses The manicurists reported performing simple hand hygiene washing with soap and waterwith adherence of The majority of professionals of the MP In evaluating the personal protective equipment PPE low adherence in the use of this was perceived among the MP Among those who reported adhering to PPE use, there was no statistical difference between the two groups of participants, with Among those who reported using gloves, In the MP group only 3.
In the evaluation of reprocessing metal retractors and pliers to remove cuticles, scissors and nail clippers we found that both the MP and the PS presented adequate adherence in some of the situations investigated.
However, biiseguridad knowledge was low especially for the MP group 7. The decontamination process was equivocally associated with sterilization: None of the MP group mentioned enzymatic detergent mnual only one of the 30 PS interviewed mentioned the use of this product, even though A similar trend was found for the term disinfection with only The use of ethanol was cited by a greater percentage of the MP group 7. With respect to containers suitable for sterilization, it was noticed that there the MP were unawareness of their existence and the professionals of this group responded that the instruments were placed within the “toaster oven” without any container and kept inside the device until used.
Asked about the laws concerning biosecurity procedures, which are disseminated by the Health Surveillance Agency Visaonly 1. The mean age of the professionals was Despite being an old profession, it was only recognized in Brazil inhowever, still without being regulated. Poor adherence and inadequate knowledge were highlighted in general, among the groups, with the PS presenting better results, although lower than expected, possibly due to undergoing technical level training with specific content on biosecurity, the knowledge of which may therefore have influenced their adherence to biosecurity procedures.
To promote the practice of HH the National Health Surveillance Agency ANVISA recommends the use of paper towels to peluqueriws hands and liquid soap stored in dispensers bioseguridaad the lowest possibility of product contamination fe microorganisms. In addition to HH, the use of personal protective pxra PPE constitutes part of the biosecurity procedure standard precautions.
Ideally uniforms and aprons should be reprocessed daily and separated from other types of clothing, such as in hospitals, due to the clothing becoming contaminated with micro-organisms that have a pathogenic potential.
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In both groups of participants of the present study there was low adherence to decontamination of equipment and, in the MP group, the respondents were unable to define the term. The PS had better adherence compared to the MP, which would be expected due to their technical level training. The author did not note the presence of a written protocol for reprocessing or care of equipment in any of the salons. If the equipment contains organic matter residues, there is the possibility that the sterilizing or disinfecting agent does not reach the microorganisms sufficiently to eliminate them.
In the decontamination process the use of enzymatic detergent is recommended, which has the advantages of removing organic matter, having low toxicity and not being corrosive to the instruments. The instruments used by manicurists can be considered semi-critical equipment, as they come into contact with broken skin and therefore require high-level disinfection or sterilization.
The equipment most often cited biosehuridad sterilization was the “toaster oven”, conforming to the term used by the interviewees, which performs internal heating without any form of temperature control, through means of a thermometer, or control of the exposure time. Sterilization by autoclave was not often used These results are similar to other studies in which knowledge about time and temperature suitable for ovens or autoclaves was far from adequate. Among the 84 manicurists interviewed Bloseguridad and PS 4.
The methods most cited by barbers were alcohol in varying concentrations, flaming, and bleach sodium hypochlorite. Ethanol was also cited as a “sterilization method” by 7. An insufficient number of instruments could also contribute to not reprocessing materials, a condition that worsens biosegyridad days and times of increased demand from peluquefias in the salons, peluuqerias there is not enough time or human resources to disinfect or sterilize the equipment. With regard to containers for sterilization and storage of items, manusl was greater ignorance and incorrect behavior among the MP group, who did not use them and stored items inside the equipment “toaster ovens”.
In the bioseburidad and aesthetics sector the professionals do not seem to be very concerned with cleaning and disinfecting the surfaces in the salons, therefore they are not carried out with a set routine, between attending different clients and at the end of the workday. Another serious problem in the beauty and aesthetics sector is the large proportion of establishments operating without approval or licenses issued by the municipalities.
This fact can be explained, as some of the participants did not have an employment contract with the salons visited and possibly worked in more than one establishment, having received a health inspection at some moment.
In general it was found that adherence was inadequate and knowledge insufficient for the participants of this study. There was poor adherence to the use of personal protective equipment and to the correct methods of reprocessing and cleaning surfaces. Assistive hand hygiene manuap were not those recommended, with the bar of soap and cloth towel reported. There was poor adherence to the use of aprons or uniforms, to the removal of accessories, and to the use of closed shoes.
The most used reprocessing method was dry heat, represented by the “toaster oven” without an external thermometer for temperature regulation and no device to control the time of exposure.
In addition, only a small percentage of the manicurists and pedicurists peluquerrias containers suitable for sterilization, with the items more often being stored within the available equipment as a manula of maintaining the sterilization. The main intervening factor alleged by the professionals for non-adherence to biosecurity procedures was the lack of information. The inspection by the Health Surveillance Agency that contributes to the education and guidance of these professionals manusl biosecurity procedures was insufficient, possibly due to the agency not knowing of the existence of the salons, since they had no business license.
Awareness among barbers about health hazards associates with their profession. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad.
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